Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik  e.V. (GIL)

" Paths to the scholarly literature "

Zurück zur Hauptseite der GIL!

Published in: “Language Problems & Language Planning”, LPLP (Amsterdam: Benjamins) 28(2003)2, p. 155-192.



Interlinguistics and Esperanto studies


Paths to the scholarly literature


Detlev Blanke




A significant number of publications on interlinguistics and Esperanto studies would be improved if their authors had a more thorough knowledge of the significant scholarly literature. However, it is often difficult even for the specialist to find his or her way among current and older scholarly studies dealing with various aspects of planned languages ([“artificial”] world [auxiliary] languages).  The current study is intended to facilitate access to the scholarly literature by drawing the reader’s attention to the myriad sources of material worthy of use by the researcher.  Particularly included, in addition to monographs, are such sources as anthologies, Festschriften, conference proceedings, university dissertations, and planned-language periodicals both current and older. Especially valuable for up-to-date information are general and specialized interlinguistics bibliographies, bibliographically oriented bulletins, and periodically published international bibliographies with sections on interlinguistics. Yielding most information is the bibliography on modern languages and literatures published by the Modern Language Association (MLA) in New York, which registers the newest materials annually.  Specialized libraries, more and more easily consulted on-line, provide large quantities of materials worthy of research.  The Internet is playing a growing role in making literature in the field available.

Scholarly literature in interlinguistics and Esperanto studies is steadily growing.  Finding one’s way around it is increasingly difficult even for experienced researchers, especially if the goal is a literature search on specific problems.  For those new to the field, the situation is particularly complicated if the goal is to produce something original.  As a result, even in newer publications important earlier studies sometimes go unnoticed. 

Accordingly, a rather broad introduction to the sources of material seems useful.  It is important to emphasize that the following study is not an annotated bibliography: such a bibliography would look quite different from the present work, though this article contains much bibliographical information.  The primary purpose of the study is to help guide the researcher to those places and instruments offering the most up-to-date bibliographical information and other material.  A straightforward bibliography could not achieve such a result, because bibliographies always involve subjective selection from a large quantity of literature. In the present text I often refer to the interlinguistics newsletters IntI and IpI (see section 5.6), because a knowledge of their contents is very helpful in locating and evaluating the literature.

In order to make the study adequately international and to avoid the danger of ignoring important items, I have shared the draft of the study with several competent specialists, who provided numerous useful corrections and additions.  For the final version, which certainly still has its shortcomings, I am solely responsible.[1]



1   Interlinguistics, planned languages, Esperanto studies


By interlinguistics[2] I understand in this context the study of the optimalization of international linguistic communication.  Traditionally its core field of study is that of planned languages or interlanguages,[3] namely the creation, structure, function, development and application of planned languages[4].

Planned languages[5] are languages consciously created in accordance with given criteria for (at least in most cases) the facilitation of international communication. They are also known as (international) artificial languages, (artificial) world (auxiliary) languages and, especially in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, universal languages.  To date, they have been insufficiently investigated as viable means for international understanding. 

In fact, to date interlinguistics has played only a small role in scholarly discourse in linguistics, as is evident from a review of surveys and handbooks of linguistics.  There do exist, however, a number of studies of linguistics that mention interlinguistic topics, but they are relatively rare and insufficient in quantity and quality.  It is not possible to give detailed examples here (I have done so elsewhere: see Blanke 1995), though positive exceptions are the extensive Hungarian handbook on languages by Fodor (2000) and the bilingual (German-English) multi-volume series of detailed handbooks on linguistics known as HSK.[6] 

This abstemiousness is in my view unfortunate, and a loss for the growth of knowledge in linguistics.  The examination of problems in interlinguistics and Esperanto studies can in fact contribute significantly to an audit of a whole string of basic linguistic concepts, because, looked at through this particular prism, they assume additional properties.  Interlinguistic viewpoints can also inspire research in adjacent disciplines – not only the basic question of the capabilities of consciously created languages to function and develop (a topic that ought to be of interest to general linguistics), but also basic questions in the theory of  language planning[7], language change[8], the study of specialized language use[9], computational linguistics (including machine translation)[10] and the theory of foreign-language instruction[11].  One should also not underestimate politico-linguistic topics[12], particularly the issue of equal rights to non-discriminatory international communication and the problems of intercultural communication, all of which have engaged the interest of interlinguists.

A particular perspective is provided by the connections between Asian language-reform movements (Chinese and Japanese) and Esperanto, addressed in the years 1933-1936 in the Japanese journal Hokusaigo Kenkyo (Studies in the International Language), published in Tokyo under the editorship of Osima Yosio.

To understand fully the phenomenon of a truly functioning planned language, we must make a distinction between a project and a language.  Scholars often ignore this distinction, attributing to a planned language characteristics that are valid only for a project[13].   They also overlook the fact that a planned language is intended to serve as a lingua franca – which excludes certain functions often present in ethnic languages, such as that of “national language” or “state language.”

For Esperanto, so far the more successful planned language, an independent linguistic and philological discipline has emerged, known as Esperanto studies or Esperantology.[14]  Esperanto studies, if understood broadly, examines the sources, principles of construction, development, function and practical communicative capabilities of this planned language.  It is also concerned with research on the Esperanto-speaking community, which exists in a kind of diaspora, and its history.[15]  We can see Esperanto studies, broadly defined, as a sub-field of interlinguistics.[16]   Comparable independent “philologies” have not emerged for other systems of planned language, though their investigation is of potential scholarly interest. 

For the non-specialist, the approach to the scholarly literature of interlinguistics and Esperanto studies is often very difficult.  By my estimate some 60-70% of this literature exists in planned languages (some 90% of it in Esperanto)[17].  As a consequence, linguists, if they say anything at all about interlinguistics, often base their remarks on randomly unearthed and not always up-to-date sources.  As a result their pronouncements are often unsatisfactory or downright wrong[18].  As any scholar knows, any serious study has to begin with a literature search.  The same is true for interlinguistics.  This has to include review of the scholarly literature written in Esperanto.

Over the past decade it has become obvious that in some fields scholars rely, quite inadequately, primarily on literature in English, giving no consideration to publications in other languages.  Such an approach could have fatal consequences for interlinguistics, because there are many valuable and indispensable publications in this field in languages other than English, particularly in German, Russian, Italian, French, and Hungarian.

Accordingly, in the following section I will try to indicate a few paths to a scientifically adequate awareness of the findings of interlinguistics and Esperanto studies.  In addition to monographs, anthologies and periodicals, I will also mention bibliographies and archives and draw the reader’s attention to the growing role of the Internet in literature searches.



2  Monographs, anthologies, and conference proceedings


Initial information on planned languages is customarily drawn from national encyclopedias, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica and the Brockhaus-Enzyklopädie, or dictionaries of linguistics.  Occasionally these also include references to the scholarly literature.  But in general the information to be found in these sources is unsatisfactory, containing errors and sometimes even perpetuating widely-credited myths and prejudices.

Important scholarly items can be found not only in the growing number of monographs[19], but also in the less well-known area of anthologies (including Festschriften and conference proceedings)[20].

The works of a few important interlinguists and Esperantologists have been collected from specialized planned-language periodicals and other difficult-to-find sources, and published, at least in part, in collected volumes.  First among them is the initiator of Esperanto Ludwik Zamenhof[21], but also included are Atanas D. Atanasov, (1983), Kálmán Kalocsay[22], Gaston Waringhien (e.g. Waringhien 1989) and Juan Régulo Pérez (1992).

Handbooks, particularly on the practical use of Esperanto, are rich in material on the beginnings of the language and its progress up to the 1970s[23].

Several series of conferences on interlinguistics have resulted in the publication of conference proceedings.  Particularly worthy of mention are the papers of the colloquia on interlinguistics organized by the universities of  Tartu[24] (Estonia) and of Łódź[25] (Poland), and also the proceedings of the interlinguistics symposia organized by the Association of Polish Students (Związek Polskich Studentów) in the 1970s and 1980s[26].  The Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (CED) organized throughout the 1980s a series of policy-oriented conferences whose proceedings appeared in mimeograph form[27].  Also the German Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e.V., GIL (Society for Interlinguistics), as of its fifth conference (1995) publishes its proceedings as supplements to Interlinguistische Informationen (IntI, see section 5.6)[28].  A number of interesting studies, often dealing with problems of specialized terminology in Esperanto, can be found in the series of proceedings of the SAEST symposia (Simpozio pri Apliko de Esperanto en Scienco kaj Tekniko),[29] organized by the Esperanto associations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Recently the proceedings of a historically particularly interesting conference were published – those of the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA), which brought together, in Geneva in 1930, for a discussion of the problem of an international auxiliary language, such linguists as Earl Babcock, Charles Bally, Otto Jespersen, William Collinson, Albert Debrunner, Otto Funke, Eduard Hermann, Albert Sechehaye, and the brother of Ferdinand de Saussure, René de Saussure (Perrenoud 2002).

Rüdiger Eichholz assembled many studies on Esperanto in the series Akademiaj Studoj.[30]   Less well known are the four volumes in the series Kontribuoj al lingvaj teorio kaj praktiko (Contributions to language theory and practice) published in 1983-1986 by the Slovak Esperanto Association (edited by Stanislav Košecký: see IpI 46).  As of 1997 the proceedings of the International Congress University (Internacia Kongresa Universitato), held each year as part of the World Congresses of Esperanto, have been published.[31]  Too seldom the proceedings of the Conferences on Esperanto Studies, a series of conferences started in 1978, have been published (see Blanke 2001b).

Additional material from important interlinguistics meetings has been collected by Carlevaro (1998), Chrdle (1995), Gecsö/Varga-Haszonits (1998), Kiselman/Mattos (2001), Košecký (1987, 1990), Koutny/Kovács (1977), Maitzen/Mayer/Tišljar (1994) and Umeda (1987).



3  Theses and advanced textbooks 


With increasing frequency, doctoral and other advanced students at universities in numbers of countries are writing dissertations on aspects of our subject.  The first bibliography of dissertations, compiled by Symoens (1989, 1995)[32], showed a jump in the numbers of such dissertations as of the mid-1970s.  Unfortunately the survey is not complete, because numbers of theses written since the founding in 1966 of the Esperanto Department at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, are missing from the list.  Several of the more important doctoral dissertations have appeared in published form[33].  Only a few habilitation-level dissertations have been accepted at universities to date[34].  Advanced textbooks for students of interlinguistics have  been written by István Szerdahelyi, who taught the subject from 1966 to 1987 in the faculty of applied linguistics at Eötvös Loránd University[35].  Textbooks in interlinguistics intended for university instruction have also been written by Barandovská-Frank (1995), Bormann (1995) and Kuznecov (1982a, b).[36]



4  Periodicals on Interlinguistics and Esperanto studies


4.1. Interlinguistics periodicals


To date, there exist no regularly published scholarly journals dedicated fully to interlinguistics and edited in accordance with the customary rigorous scholarly standards.  However, by means of a number of small periodicals, variable in their quality, range, and frequency of publication, we can follow the discussion of interlinguistic issues, particularly as they relate to individual systems of planned language. Duličenko (1990: 436-437) lists a total of 30 of these periodicals before 1973.  This list is not complete.  At the end of the nineteenth century, for only a short period but with abundant material, the journal Linguist appeared (Hannover, 1896-1897, approx. 400 p., editor Max Wahren).

Among important periodicals containing articles on various planned languages and appearing in the first half of the twentieth century are Discussiones: Academia pro Interlingua (Torino 1909-1913, ed. Giuseppe Peano),  Academia pro Interlingua (Torino, 1921-1927, ed. Giuseppe Peano), Schola et Vita (Milan, 1926-1939, ed. Instituto pro Interlingua [Director Nicola Mastropaolo], as of 1928 journal of the Academia pro Interlingua) and Tolero (Paris 1928-1930, ed. E. Dayras; 1931-1936 continued as Interlanguages, ed. E. Mauney) [37].  Also worthy of mention are Novialiste (in Jespersen’s Novial, Stockholm 1934-1939, ed. Per Ahlberg) and Mondo (1912-1929, Stockholm, in Ido and Novial).

After the Second World War, the most important non-Esperanto interlinguistics periodical was The International Language Review (A Clearing House for Facts, Theories and Fancies on the History, Science and Bibliography of International Language Movement, ILR), published in 50 issues from 1955 to 1968 by Floyd and Evelyn Hardin, in Denver[38].  For the researcher with some knowledge of its background, the bulletin Union (1971-1976)[39] also contains some useful material. 

From the newsletter published in 1991 on the project for a planned language called Vorlin by Richard Harrison (Orlando, USA), the Journal of Planned Languages was born.  From 1992 to 1996 some 24 issues appeared.  Between 1995 and 2001 three  issues of  Journal of Universal Languagewere published by Sejong University, in the Republic of Korea[40].

More oriented to Esperanto, and edited by Artur Bormann (Reinbek, Hamburg, Germany) from a politicolinguistic and sociological point of view was Interlingvistika Informa Servo, published by the Gesellschaft für Internationale Sprache e.V. (Society for International Language). Between  1964 and 1984 a total of 84 issues appeared.

Also significant is the Esperanto-language periodical on the theory of planned languages Planlingvistiko, published in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, and edited by Jouko Lindstedt (1981-83) and György Nanovfszky (1984-86). A total of 17 issues were published. 

Planned as a sociolinguistic and politicolinguistic scholarly journal on problems of international communication, the journal La Monda Lingvo-Problemo, LMLP, was founded in 1969 and appeared until 1977, in a total of 18 issues, under the editorship first of Victor Sadler, then of Richard Wood.  As of 1977, this journal changed its name to Language Problems and  Language Planning, LPLP (edited by Richard Wood until 1984, then by Humphrey Tonkin (1984- ), who was later joined by Probal Dasgupta (1990- ), Klaus Schubert (1990-97) and Marc van Oostendorp (1998-99).  Frank Nuessel has served as book review editor throughout its history.  LPLP was published initially in The Hague by Mouton, then in Austin by the University of Texas Press, and, since 1990, in Amsterdam by Benjamins.  It regularly contains interlinguistics contributions, under the editorship of  Mark Fettes[41], and reviews. The same is true of Grundlagenstudien aus Kybernetik und Geistes­wissen­schaft/Humankybernetik, GRKG (ed. Helmar Frank, Miloš Lánský, Manfred Wettler), published as of the 1970s and concentrating on educational cybernetics.  Both journals occasionally publish contributions in Esperanto (GRKG more frequently than LPLP) and regularly provide abstracts in Esperanto.


4.2  Periodicals in Esperanto studies


The first journal to appear, before the Second World War, exclusively for the publication of Esperanto studies was Lingva Kritiko (Studoj kaj notoj pri gramatiko, vortaro, stilo). From 1932 to 1935 some 28 issues appeared as a supplement to Heroldo de Esperanto (Horrem, Köln), under the editorship of Bruno Migliorini and Stefano La Colla.

There have been only two attempts to publish a refereed journal in Esperanto studies. Unfortunately the first such effort did not last long.  Paul Neergaard (Copenhagen) edited (1949-1964) a total of five issues of the journal Esperantologio (Internacia Revuo por la lingvistiko kaj biblio­grafio de Esperanto).  Contributions appeared primarily in Esperanto, but also in English and (occasionally) in French.  A new departure in the same direction is the journal Esperantologio - Esperanto Studies (EES), founded in 1999 as a continuation of Neergaard’s initiative, and edited and published by Christer Kiselman (Uppsala)[42].

Studies on Esperanto also appear in the newsletter La letero de l'Akademio de Esperanto (Paris), which was published from 1987 to 1995 in 31 issues.  It was published by the Amikoj de l’ Akademio de Esperanto (Friends of the Esperanto Academy), associated with the Akademio de Esperanto, the Esperanto Academy (edited by Jean Thierry).

Also worthy of mention is Printempa Kampo (Jara revuo pri esperantologio, Esperanta faklingviko kaj interlingviko), a journal that has appeared irregularly as of 1989 in Dalian, China, and contains contributions to Esperanto studies exclusively by Chinese scholars[43].   The Japanese Esperanto Institute had plans to publish a journal entitled Japana Esperantologio: Bulteno de Japana Esperanto-Instituto, but only the first issue appeared (August 1992, 92pp.).

The series of Esperanto-Dokumentoj (Esperanto Documents, Documents sur l’Espéranto) is in many respects a periodical publication.  The series contains studies and documents on the theory and practice of the planned language Esperanto and is published in Rotterdam on an occasional basis by the Universal Esperanto Association. There are series in Esperanto (37 issues up to the end of 2002), English (46 issues) and French (28 issues).[44] Several national Esperanto institutions publish occasional papers, among them the German Esperanto Institute[45] and the Esperantology/Interlinguistics Group of the Italian Esperanto Federation[46].

And finally it is important to mention that various national and international Esperanto periodicals occasionally publish articles in interlinguistics and Esperanto studies, among them Literatura Foiro, Internacia Pedagogia Revuo,  Fonto,  La Gazeto,  Scienca Revuo, and  Iltis-Forumo (1989-1995), also the journals Esperanto, Esperanto aktuell and Der Esperantist (1965-1990). Contributions on planned languages occasionally also appear in Progreso (Ido), Panorama in Interlingua (Interlingua IALA-Gode) and Cosmoglotta (Occidental-Interlingue).



5  Bibliographies


Searches in separate bibliographies offering a survey of interlinguistics can produce good results, though several bibliographies of linguistics also contain sections on interlinguistics.


5.1  Bibliographical surveys in interlinguistics


Bibliographies compiled by interlinguists cover part of the basic literature.  The most important literature in and on planned languages up to the mid-1920s was duly noted by the classic Bibliografio de Internacia Lingvo of Petr E. Stojan (1929/73).  Haupenthal (1968),  Tonkin (1977), Wood (1982) and Tonkin/Fettes (1996) offer critical reviews of more recent studies.

To date the fullest chronologically ordered list of planned language systems recorded up to 1973 is that of Duličenko (1990), who provides a brief commentary on each, along with specimen texts and basic bibliographical information.  The present author has compiled a bibliography of bibliographies in interlinguistics and Esperanto studies (including hidden bibliographies), and has also compiled a list of 2000 titles covering the most important literature in interlinguistics and Esperanto studies (Blanke 1985: 296-381).

Many studies can be found in the often hard to find small journals and bulletins in planned languages, which are often short-lived (four or five years on average).  Máthé compiled a bibliography covering the period from 1880 to the mid-1990s listing 14,000 periodicals in and on planned languages (some 90% associated with Esperanto) [47].  Máthé’s publication can be seen as a continuation of the bibliography of periodicals in planned languages compiled by Takács (1934), which recorded 1276 titles in Esperanto and 195 in other planned languages.

Here is an overview of 11,393 titles, compiled by Máthé (1993):


Journals in and on        Date of language             Quantity            Percentage

Esperanto                             (1887)                           10,440                91,63

Volapük                               (1879)                              297                    2,61

Ido                                        (1907)                             286                     2,51

Occidental-Interlingue           (1922)                              99                     0,87

Interlingua (IALA/Gode)       (1951)                              83                     0,73                     

Other planned languages                                              188                     1,65



5.2  Special bibliographies in interlinguistics


In this group we can put works on individual planned languages.  They include several that list considerably more material than Stojan (1929/73), for example on Volapük (Haupenthal 1982), Ido (Carlevaro & Haupenthal 1999) and Occidental-Interlingue (Stenström 1997). The beginnings of the first planned-language movement, that of Volapük, can also be reconstructed through a reprint of the first major Volapük journal[48].

Also worthy of attention are subject bibliographies and lists of publications by noted interlinguists, among them the Bibliografio de Esperanto-vortaroj (Bibliography of Esperanto Dictionaries) by Ockey (1982)[49] and the Bibliografio pri terminologio kaj faka apliko de Esperanto (Bibliography on Terminology and the Specialized Application of Esperanto) (Blanke 1998a).

Among the Festschriften (see above) the researcher can find lists of the publications of the individuals being honored: for André Albault in I. Haupenthal & R. Haupenthal 2000, for Detlev Blanke in Fiedler & Liu 2001, for William Auld and Marjorie Boulton in Benczik 1999, for Helmar Frank in Barandovská-Frank 1993a, 1993b, and Pinter 1999[50], for Reinhard Haupenthal in Menade...1998[51], for Gaston Waringhien in Haupenthal 1985, and so on. In IpI and IntI lists of publications of interlinguistics scholars appear occasionally, for example for Aleksandr Duličenko (IpI 39 and 42; IntI 40), Sabine Fiedler (IpI 30, IntI 30), Georg-Friedrich Meier (IpI 5, IntI 5), Hermann Ölberg (IpI 42, IntI 44), Alicja Sakaguchi (IpI 34, IntI 35) and Adomas Vaitilavičius (IpI 20).  We should perhaps also mention here the bibliographies of  Jan Ámos Komenský (IpI 1+2, IntI 2 and 3-4) and Wilhelm Ostwald (IpI 37, IntI 46), both important from the perspective of interlinguistics.  There are only  a few national bibliographies of interlinguistics publications: they exist for the German Democratic Republic (Blanke 1990), Romania (Dominte & Nagy 2000) and the Soviet Union (Duličenko 1983).


5.3  International periodical bibliographies in linguistics


Relatively speedy information on new publications can be obtained by searching international bibliographies with sections on interlinguistics.  The following are the most comprehensive.




The Bibliographie linguistique de l'anné compléments des  années précédentes, published by the Comité International Permanent  des Linguistes. Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: Kluwer (BL-CIP)[52], has appeared regularly since 1939 and is the largest linguistics bibliography in the world.  The volume for 1998 (published in 2000) covers 2700 periodicals and contains 20,743 items.  Since 1948 the interlinguistics section has had various names: (1) Langues auxiliaires - auxiliary languages, (2) Interlinguistique (langues planifiées) -  Interlinguistics (planned languages) and, as of 1989, (3) Interlinguistique – Interlinguistics.  The quantity of titles registered in this section is very small and in no sense representative of the nonetheless significant literature produced.  Over the fifty years from 1948 to 1998 it has added up to 496 titles, so an average of 9 or 10 a year.  Literature in planned languages is barely noticed at all.




The Bibliography of Linguistic Literature, Frankfurt/Main: Klostermann (BLL)[53]  records only a limited range of literature on linguistics.  In addition to general linguistics, it concentrates on Anglistics, Germanistics and Romanistics.  For the year 2001 it covered 1300 periodicals.  Its interlinguistics sections are Plan­­­­spra­chen (1971-1980) and, as of 1981, Plansprachen / Artifi­cial languages.  Criteria for inclusion of items. as with BL-CIP, are unclear. Occasional contributions in planned languages are listed.  Recently the compilers have become aware of  Interlinguistische Informationen (IntI) and the papers of the conferences of  GIL (Supplements, Beihefte, to IpI). Between 1971 and 2001 a total of 353 titles with interlinguistics content have been recorded, so an average of 10-11 items per year.




In terms of quantity and scope, the International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures, published in New York by MLA, the Modern Language Association of America, runs second only to BL-CIP in its coverage of linguistics.  For researchers in interlinguistics, however, it is more significant. For the year 2001 MLA covered a total of  4,500 periodicals (plus isolated articles from additional periodicals), but among them were journals in literature, folklore, and theory of language-teaching, and therefore a comparison with BL-CIP and BLL of periodicals covered is difficult.  For 2001, MLA recorded some 10,800 linguistics titles. Before 1931  the bibliography listed only U.S. publications, but since that date has considered also scholarly work published in other countries. Interlinguistics sections have been included only since 1960, as follows:


1960 - 1967:  International Languages (under General Language and Linguistics),


1968 - 1973:  Interlinguistics (under Composite and Derivative Languages, Other Communicative Behavior),


1974 – 1980:  International Languages


1981 –1982:  International Languages.  Auxiliary Languages


As of 1983:  Auxiliary Languages. International Languages[54].


In the period 1931-2001 MLA recorded a total of 6,514 titles in interlinguistics.  From 1971-1990 some 3,164 titles appeared, so a yearly average of 158 titles. The yearly average increased after 1990 and now stands at around 300.  These numbers, however, are only minimum indices of the total material recorded: a whole collection of items of interlinguistic significance also appears in the section Invented languages. Furthermore, in the sections on national literatures, literary theory, folklore, and, as of 2000, the teaching of foreign languages, also part of the MLA Bibliography, additional contributions appear, for example on translation from ethnic languages to Esperanto, on the methodology of Esperanto teaching, and on literary criticism (particularly on individual authors who publish in Esperanto).  These contributions add some 50 titles to the total each year. 

The MLA bibliography appears each year in two volumes, in large format, with between 1400 and 1600 pages each, one volume consisting of a subject index and the other of classified listings with an author index. The first volume allows the reader to find items by topic and (in the case of literary criticism) by authors discussed (e.g. articles about the Esperanto writer William Auld or about Esperanto translations of the works of Shakespeare), referring the reader to the second volume, which contains the bibliographical listings themselves.  The interlinguistics section in this volume permits orientation by subsections for interlinguistics generally and for individual language systems.  In the Esperanto subsection there are separate divisions for bibliography, grammar (subdivided by grammatical category), lexicology (including etymology, lexicography, phraseology, terminology, and word-borrowing), morphology (including word formation), onomastics (anthroponyms, hydronyms, toponyms...), phonetics, phonology, pragmatics, semantics, stylistics, syntax (e.g. aspect, case, predicate), translation (including machine translation), and writing systems (alphabet, orthography).  The bibliography is also available in electronic form, beginning in 1963.  It can be searched in a number of different ways and is available in several different formats, including online and CD-ROM.




The abstract service Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (incorporating Reading Abstracts),  San Diego: Sociological Abstracts Inc. (LLBA) began in 1965 and defines itself as a “collection of nonevaluative abstracts which reflects the world's literature in language behavior, linguistics, and related disciplines and a comprehensive book review bibliography" (LLBA 29 [1995] 1:19).  The series appears five times a year in volumes totaling some 400-500 pages.  Individual volumes contain concise summaries of articles in linguistics journals and monographs.  Section 18, International Languages, is a subdivision of Descriptive Linguistics. In 1998 some 73 abstracts appeared and in 1999 a total of 44, among them many contributions not necessarily attributable to interlinguistics.  As of 1998, abstracts of Esperanto-language contributions are also included. 


BL-CIP, BLL and MLA compared


The following table gives an overview of the quantity of interlinguistics entries in BL-CIP, BLL and MLA (in the case of MLA, only the section entitled Auxiliary Languages. International Languages):













































An analysis of entries by language for the past three years presents the following picture:


BL-CIP (1996-1998), 56 entries

language                    quantity of items                         %

German                              22                               39,28

English                                 17                                30,36

8 other ethnic languages        15                                26,79

Planned languages                 2                                    3,57



BLL (1999-2001), 40 entries

language                    quantity of items                           %

German                                18                               45

English                                   8                               20

4 other ethnic languages          6                               15

Planned languages                   8                               20



MLA (1999-2001), 822 entries

languages                  quantity of items                              %

German                                115                             13,99

English                                    53                                6,45

Italian                                     13                               1,58

Dutch                                     13                               1,58

Hungarian                                  9                               1,09

French                                      5                               0,60

17 other ethnic languages        23                               2,80

Esperanto                             565                             68,73

Other planned languages         26                               3,16



An analysis of the MLA entries shows that 71,9 % of the itemized literature is written in planned languages.  Of the 71.9% in planned languages, 95.6% is in Esperanto.  Of the 28.1% in ethnic languages, the largest part is in German.  An analysis of a larger quantity of entries would certainly change the picture somewhat, but perhaps not significantly.  But the figures speak for themselves: one is insufficiently informed if one reads only the literature in English.  Of course, such quantitative indices in no sense reveal anything about the quality of the publications. 


5.4  National periodical bibliographies


Occasionally we find interlinguistics sections in national linguistics bibliographies.  One such example is the annual publication Sprachwissenschaftliche Informationen (linguistic information), published by the Central Institute for Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic.  From 1985 to 1991 it included a section entitled Plansprachen (planned languages). [56]



5.5  Bibliographies on single fields of linguistics


Bibliographies on single fields in linguistics generally do not have sections on interlinguistics.  Among the exceptions, however, is Kommentierte Bibliographie zur Slavischen Soziolinguistik (Brang/Züllig 1981: 1143-1157), which contains 192 partly annotated items.


5.6  Interlinguistics newsletters with a bibliographical orientation


Interlinguistic newsletters provide information on new publications and events relatively rapidly and precisely.  In this connection the newsletter Fokuso (1967-76), edited in Esperanto by Ebbe Vilborg, merits special attention. In all, it contains 1303 bibliographic items in the sections ĝenerala kaj kompara interlingvistiko (general and comparative interlinguistics), Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua, Interlingue, aliaj projektoj (other projects).  The Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (Rotterdam and Hartford), under whose auspices  Language Pro­blems and Language Planning is published, has, since 1974 (with interruptions) produced in Esperanto an interlinguistics newsletter entitled Informilo por Interlingvistoj, IpI[57].  The newsletter provides relatively detailed information on new publications in interlinguistics and Esperanto studies.  Up to the end of 2002, a total of 67 issues had appeared (in three series). 

Comparable to IpI is the German-language newsletter Interlinguistische Informationen, IntI, published since 1992 by Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e.V., GIL (Society on Interlinguistics), which is active in Germany.  The editor is the author of the present study.  Up to the end of 2002, a total of 43 issues had appeared.

Both IpI and IntI are designed to follow as closely as possible new developments on planned languages, including publications.  They therefore do not limit themselves to Esperanto and also include politico-linguistic and other aspects of international linguistic communication (especially the language policies of the European Union), though of course the contents are limited by the information reaching the editor.  For all issues of  IpI and IntI for the last decade (1992-2002) there are indexes of persons (IpI: issues 40-41, IntI: issues 42-43), compiled by Ino Kolbe.

From 1991 to 1996 Flandra Esperanto-Ligo, the Flemish Esperanto League, published the newsletter Terminoteko (ed. Bernhard Pabst).  Its primary aim was to record publications in and on specialized language in Esperanto, particularly specialized terminology.  A total of 14 issues appeared..  In the United States from 1975 to 1985 there appeared nine issues of the newsletter Esperanto Studies, published by the Esperanto Studies Asso­ciation of America. As of 1991, in effect continuing this earlier bulletin, the Esperantic Studies Foundation has published a newsletter entitled Esperantic Studies (between 1991 and 1999 12 issues had appeared).  As of issue 13 (2002), the series is appearing in electronic form ( ).

Finally we should mention that the Chinese interlinguist Liu Haitao[58] has reproduced part of these materials in 10 issues of his Chinese-language newsletter Interlingvistika Kuriero.


5.7  Periodical indexes


Finding important journal articles is particularly difficult.  This is so both of journals in planned languages and journals in other languages.  But there are some useful aids. 


Periodicals in linguistics


Often only by chance a researcher becomes aware of  a given interlinguistic study written by someone outside the field in a linguistics journal.  It is indeed difficult to search the large quantity of linguistics journals in the average university library for significant material in interlinguistics.  Some help is provided by international bibliographies of studies in the scholarly periodical literature, whose indexes can yield lesser-known material.  The same is true of reviews.  The German scholar Felix Dietrich was the founder of such a bibliography.[59]

But as of 1972 this process can take place at one’s own desk.  The city and university library of  Frankfurt/Main (DFG-Sondersammelgebiet Linguistik[60]) publishes Current Contents Linguistik (sic!): Inhaltsverzeichnisse linguistischer Fachzeitschriften. Tables of Contents of Linguistic Journals (CCL). Annually, four issues are published (each with some 300 or 400 pages). CCL reproduces the contents pages of some 250[61] linguistics periodicals, among them Language Problems and Language Planning (LPLP) and Interlinguistische Informationen, (IntI).  The publication, however, only covers languages with Latin or Cyrillic alphabets.


Esperanto periodicals


Many minor studies, contributions to discussion, or other expressions of special problems in Esperanto studies are scattered among various Esperanto journals (see also section 4.2, above).  There is a danger that they will be forgotten. Yearly indexes or tables of contents for a few journals give some help, particularly if the researcher is examining the Esperanto language community.  The journal  Esperanto (Universal Esperanto Association) publishes such an index.  However, so far, selected bibliographies or listings exist only for a very few journals, for example Literatura Mondo (M. Benczik 1976),  La Nica Literatura Revuo (Vatré 1988),  Scienca Revuo (Bednarz 1984), Der Esperantist (Knöschke & Kolbe 1997, Kolbe 1998)[62] and Paco[63].  Reprints of Esperanto magazines are also helpful for the historian.  For example, there exists a reprint of the first periodical in Esperanto, La Esperantisto 1889-1895.[64]

Extremely valuable is the bibliography of Esperanto-Gazetartikoloj, Esperanto magazine articles, compiled by Bernhard Pabst. As of the end of 2003 the bibliography, which exists only as an electronic data bank, contained 8000 entries, partly annotated. Informations about it can  reached through the website of the Society on Interlinguistics (see section 6)****.  The bibliography is continuously updated. 


5.8  Catalogues of books in and on planned languages


Commercial book catalogues of literature in planned languages are currently published regularly only by the Universala Esperanto-Asocio (UEA, Rotterdam) and the Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI, Beekbergen, Netherlands).  UEA’s catalogue for 2001[65] contains over 3500 titles, among them textbooks and dictionaries in 47 languages.  Sections on Language, Esperantology, Interlinguistics, Language Problems and Esperanto Movement and History offer some 500 titles.  The bibliographical section contains 49 titles. Annually some 200-250 new titles are published in Esperanto in various genres.  The primary source of information on these new publications is the journal Esperanto in its section Laste aperis...

The book list for Interlingua for the year 2000[66] contains around 250 titles, primarily learning materials in 22 languages. An analysis of the new publications in the catalogue reveals that annually somewhere between five and ten new titles are published.  Materials on interlinguistics are rare.  Lins (2002) has also demonstrated that it is also useful to search Internet lists of second-hand books.[67]



6  Libraries and archives specializing in planned languages


Highly significant for the search for interlinguistics materials and their acquisition are those public and private libraries and archives containing collections on planned languages. Marinko Gjivoje (1980) described 30 of the most important.  A survey presented by Árpád Máthé at a conference in Vienna in 1992[68], indicated that at the time a total of 100 interlinguistics libraries and archives existed around the world in 30 countries.  Such collections contain important publications in interlinguistics and Esperanto studies, plus planned-language periodicals and in some cases valuable archives.

Such archives present a special problem.  Their conservation often receives less attention than is devoted to printed books – something that overlooks the fact that they are unique, and can be easily lost or „recycled“ (for example letters and unpublished manuscripts by eminent interlinguists and specialists in Esperanto studies).  In contrast to such materials, lost books are generally replaceable, or can be found in several libraries and collections.   

The largest collections[69] are those of the Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo Vieno (the planned languages section of the Austrian National Library) [70]  and the Centre de docu­men­ta­tion et d'étude sur la langue internationale (CDELI), part of the city library of  La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland.[71]  These libraries contain not only material on and in Esperanto, but also related to Volapük, Latino sine flexione, Occidental-Interlingue, Ido, Novial,  Interlingua and other planned languages.  Archival materials are particularly abundant at CDELI, where an electronic catalogue is in preparation.  

In order of significance, next in line are the Hodler Library of the Universal Esperanto Association in Rotterdam[72], the Library of the German Esperanto Institute en Aalen[73], the Butler Library of the Esperanto Association of Britain (housed as of 2002 in Barlaston, Staffordshire), the Spanish Esperanto Museum in Sant Pau d’Ordal (Barcelona), the Károly Fajszi Collection in Budapest (see the catalogue by Pataki-Czeller 1991), the Cesar Vanbiervliet Collection (specializing in periodicals), part of the city library of Kortrijk, Belgium) kaj la French Esperanto Museum in Gray and the interlinguistics collection in the library of IULM (Istituto Universitario di Lingue Moderne), founded by the Centro Italiano di Interlinguistica.[74] Also worthy of mention are the collections of the Catholic University of Lublin (Poland) (see Wojtakowski 1979) and the Amsterdam Uni­ver­sity Library (see Catalogi...I,II), the Alan Connor Collection at the University of Oregon (see Smith & Haake 1978), and the library of the Japanese Esperanto Institute. Libraries specializing in materials on workers’ history include the Fritz Hüser Institute for German and International Workers’ Literature (Fritz-Hüser-Institut für deutsche und internationale Arbeiter-Literatur) in Dortmund, Germany, which contains a collection on the history of the workers’ Esperanto movement (see Lins 1998), and the International Institute for Social History (Internationaal Institut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, IISG), in Amsterdam.  In city, regional and provincial archives material can often be discovered on the history of the Esperanto community.[75]



7  Interlinguistics in electronic media


The use of electronic media is growing in importance as a source of information on materials in interlinguistics and Esperanto studies[76].  More and more catalogues and other aids are becoming available on optical disc or laser disc[77].  The Internet provides up-to-the-minute information.  E-mail links to specialists in the field, and listserves, help in the search for materials.  Public library catalogues and data banks are accessible electronically.  A growing number of journals are stored on the Internet, for example Esperantologio – Esperanto Studies (EES): 20 Apr 03).  Rare or obscure publications on the lesser-known planned-language systems have been scanned and are therefore once again accessible.  New planned-language projects are presented on the Internet and numerous links to individual projects are easily identified.  Of course, the standard linguistics data bases and lists can be used  to identify materials in interlinguistics, for example Linguistic Abstracts On Line, available through subscription from Linguist List Plus ( ).[78]

The following selection of websites offers an overview of interlinguistic activities and provides, among other things, bibliographies and numerous links to further sites. 


1.  Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems (Centro pri Dokumentado kaj Informado pri la Monda Lingvo-Problemo, CED): (in English and Esperanto, 20 Apr 03).


2.  Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e.V. (GIL, i.e. the [German-language] Society on Interlinguistics): (in German and English, 20 Apr 03)[79].


 3.  Increasing numbers of interlinguists use their personal webpages to list their own publications and other materials, and provide links to other websites, for example the Chinese scholar of informatics and computer linguistics (and interlinguistics) Liu Haitao. His site offers bibliographies and biographies of well-known interlinguists:  (20 Apr 03).  See also the sites of the Japanese linguist Tsuguya Sasaki ( 20 Apr 03) and the Swedish linguist Hartmut Traunmüller ( 20 Apr 03).


4.  TROVANTO, the catalogue of the Planned Languages Section of the Austrian National Library can be reached at (20 Apr 03).  In 2002 the library completed the retrospective entry of all monographs in the collection. A link on its website connects the scholar with the most extensive grammar of Esperanto available on the Internet, Plena manlibro de Esperanta gramatiko, by Bertil Wennergren (, 20 Apr 03).


5.  Martin Weichert has created the Virtual Esperanto Library, Virtuala Esperanto-Biblioteko VEB:   (20.Apr.03).


6. A number of professionally oriented websites have recently been established, for example on the pedagogy and teaching of Esperanto and on instructional materials:


7. Search engines, for example, facilitate the discovery of numerous websites and publications.  A Google search for “interlinguistics” (20 Apr 03) yielded 1270 hits, and for “Esperantology” 170. 


Along with its many advantages, the Internet has the disadvantage of instability and the fact that it is insufficiently checked and updated.  Webpages with their URLs and links can change or disappear.  Any user of the Net can, without restraint, post texts and other collections of data of often dubious quality.  For this reason, information gathered by search engines is not always reliable and requires critical examination by experts.  Problems of copyright and respect for authors’ rights on the Net still await a definitive solution.



8  Listings of interlinguists


Interlinguists and specialists in Esperanto studies are seldom listed in directories of eminent persons, though there are exceptions.  German linguists are presented by Kürschner (1994) in his Handbook of Linguists.  Interlinguistics research on planned languages is mentioned among the primary fields, and Esperanto appears among the languages.  For the linguists in question biographical and bibliographical data are provided.   

The 18th edition of Kürschner's Deutscher Gelehrten-Kalender (Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, 1996) contains information on interlinguists and presents their detailed bibliographies on CD. The 19th edition (München: K.G. Sauer, 2001), in three volumes, contains entries for several interlinguists with brief bibliographies.  Extremely useful is the Who’s Who of Esperanto, Kiu estas kiu en scienco kaj tekniko (Who’s who in science and technology) by Darbellay (1981), which lists 200 Esperanto-speaking scholars in various disciplines across the world, with their most important publications.  Among them are interlinguists and scholars of Esperanto studies.  An updated and expanded new edition is much needed.  It could be compiled quite easily through the Internet.  Somewhat different in character is the directory of scholars with a knowledge of Esperanto in Internacia Sciencista Dokumentaro (T.Frank 1996), which is regularly updated in the Internet: (20 Apr 03).


(translated by Humphrey Tonkin)





[The following abbreviations are used in this list:

  • GIL: Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e.V.;
  • IntI: Interlinguistische Informationen (Berlin: Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e.V.);
  • IpI: Informilo por Interlingvistoj (Rotterdam: CED/UEA);
  • LPLP: Language Problems & Language Planning (Amsterdam: CED/Benjamins). 

If the abbreviations IpI and/or IntI appear after a work, it is presented in detail in the publication concerned or its contents page is reproduced.]


Albani, Paolo, and Berlinghiero Buonarroti. 1994. Aga magéra difúra: Dizionario delle lingue immaginarie. Torino: Zanichelli, 478 pp. [IpI 21, IntI 23].

Atanasov, Atanas D. 1983. La lingva esenco de Esperanto. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 175 pp.

Bak, Giuxan. 1991. Hanguŏwa esuxpheranthouxi hyŏngthae taejo yŏngu. A Study of Morphological Contrasts of  Korean and Esperanto. Seoul: Konkuk University and Seula Esperanto-Kulturcentro, 183 pp.

Barandovská-Frank, Věra. 1993a. Kybernetische Pädagogik. Klerigkibernetiko. Schriften 1973-1992 von Helmar Frank und Mitarbeitern. Band 6. Berlin and Paderborn: Institut für Kybernetik; Bratislava: Esprima; San Marino: AIEP), 1123 pp. [List of publications of Helmar Frank: pp. 1057-1066].

----------. 1993b. Kybernetische Pädagogik. Klerigkibernetiko. Schriften 1962-1992 von Helmar Frank und Mitautoren. Band 7. Berlin and Paderborn: Institut für Kybernetik; Dobřichovice/Prag: KAVA-PECH; San Marino: AIEP), 1088 pp. [List of  publications of Helmar Frank: pp. 1018-1019].

----------. 1995. Enkonduka lernolibro de interlingvistiko. Sibiu: Edítura Universităti din Sibiu, 106 pp. [IpI12-13, IntI 15-16; a Czech-language edition has also appeared].

Bausani, Alessandro. 1970. Geheim- und Universalsprachen. Entwicklung und Typologie. (trans. Gustav Glaesser). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 175 pp. [The Italian original appeared after the German translation: Le lingue inventate. Linguaggi artificiali, linguaggi segreti, linguaggi universali. Roma: Casa Ed. Astrolabio-Ubaldini Editore, 1974; 2nd ed. 1997].

Becker, Ulrich, ed. 1996. Translation in Plansprachen. Beiträge gehalten auf der 5. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik, November 1995, in Berlin. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik, 72 pp.

----------, ed. 1997a.  Terminologiewissenschaftliche Aspekte der Interlinguistik. Beiträge gehalten auf der 6. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e.V., 15.-17. November 1996 in Berlin. Interlinguistische Informationen, Beiheft 2. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik, 51 pp.

----------. 1997b. Interlinguistik im Internet. In Becker 1997a: 44-46.

----------. 2001. Interlinguistik und Internet. In Fiedler & Liu 2001: 254-277.

Bednarz, Irena. 1984. Bibliografio de la enhavo de Scienca Revuo 1949-1978. Suplemento 1979-1982. Warsaw: Pola Esperanto-Asocio, 78+6 pp.

Benczik, Maria. 1976. Literatura Mondo 1922-1949. Kompleta indekso. 92 pp. [supplement to the reprint of Literatura Mondo, vol. 6, 1947-49, Tokio: Kooperativo por Represo de Literatura Mondo ĉe Teikyo Universitato, Anatomia Instituto de Medicina Fakultato].

Benczik, Vilmos, ed. 1999. Lingva Arto. Jubilea libro omaĝe al William Auld kaj Marjorie Boulton. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 217 pp. [IpI 35, IntI 37].

Blanke, Detlev. 1981. Plansprache und Nationalsprache. Einige Probleme der Wortbildung des Esperanto und des Deutschen in konfrontativer Darstellung. Linguistische Studien 85. Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaft der DDR (Zentralinstitut für Sprachwissenschaft), 162 pp.

----------. 1985. Internationale Plansprachen. Eine Einführung. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 408 pp.

----------, ed. 1986. Socipolitikaj aspektoj de la Esperanto-movado. Budapest: Hungara Esperanto-Asocio, 228 pp. [1st ed. 1978].

----------. 1990. Interlinguistik in der DDR. Eine Bilanz. Der Esperantist 26/5(163): 110-117.

----------. 1995. Esperanto kaj lingvistiko – sciencpolitikaj aspektoj. In Esperanto-Dokumente 2. Osnabrück: Deutsches Esperanto-Institut, pp. 3-21.

----------. 1997. The Term “Planned Language”. In Tonkin 1997: 1-20.

----------. 1998a. Esperanto kiel faklingvo: Terminologiaj kaj fakaplikaj aktivecoj. IpI  7/1(24): 9-18.

----------. 1998b. Terminology Science and Planned Languages. In Erhard Oeser & Christian Galinski, ed. Eugen Wüster (1898-1977): Leben und Werk – Ein österreichischer Pionier der Informationsgesellschaft; His Life and Work – An Austrian Pioneer of the Information Society. Vienna: TermNet:133-168 [on Wüster see also IntI 28, IpI 26].

----------. 1998c. Interlinguistik und Plansprachen. Sitzungsberichte der Leibniz-Sozietät, Bd. 21, Heft 2: 45-76.

----------. 2000. Einige methodologische Probleme der Geschichtsschreibung über GDREA. In Esperanto und Historiographie. Esperanto-Dokumente 4. Berlin: Deutsches Esperanto-Institut, 31-62 [bibliography on the historiography of the Esperanto language community, pp. 55-59; see also IntI 41, IpI 37].

----------. 2001a. Vom Entwurf zur Sprache. In Schubert 2001: 37-89.

----------, ed. 2001b. Esperanto kaj kulturo – sociaj kaj lingvaj aspektoj: Aktoj de la 19-a Esperantologia Konferenco en la 81-a Universala Kongreso de Esperanto, Prago 1996. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 50 pp.

Bormann, Werner. 1995. Die Hamburger Interlinguistik-Vorlesung. Kiel: Strigo, 127 pp.

Borsboom, Ed. 1976. Vivo de Lanti. Paris: SAT, 273 pp.

Brang, Peter, & Monika Züllig. 1981. Kommentierte Bibliographie zur Slavischen Soziolinguistik. Band II. Bern: Peter Lang [titles on interlinguistics: pp.1142-1157].

Bußmann, Hadumod. 2002. Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft. Dritte aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage. Stuttgart: Kröner, 783 pp.

Carlevaro, Tazio, ed. 1998. Domaine de la recherche en linguistique appliquée. Deuxième Colloque d’interlinguistique. Contributions. CDELI - La Chaux-de-Fonds. Bellinzona : Hans Dubois, 235 pp. [IpI 25, IntI 27]

---------- & Reinhard Haupenthal. 1999. Bibliografio de Ido. Bellinzona: Hans Dubois; Saarbrücken: Iltis, 193 pp.

Catalogi Kunsttalen I. 1969. Esperanto. Catalogus van de boekerij de Nederlandse Esperantisten-vereniging "La Estonto estas nia" en van de Esperanto-collectie in de Universiteits­­bibliotheek. Eerste Deel. Speciale Catalogi, Nieuwe Serie, No. 5. Amsterdam: Universiteitsbibliotheek, 338 pp.

Catalogi Kunsttalen II. 1969. Esperanto. Catalogus van de boekerij de Nederlandse Esperantisten-vereniging "La Estonto estas nia" en van de Esperanto-collectie in de Universiteits­­bibliotheek. Tweede Deel. Tijdschriften - en Serie­titels. Speciale Catalogi, Nieuwe Serie,  No. 5. Amsterdam: Universiteits­bibliotheek, 56 pp.

Chrdle, Petr, ed. 1995. La Stato kaj Estonteco de la Internacia Lingvo Esperanto. Prelegokolekto de la unua simpozio de la Akademio de Esperanto (Praha 1994-07-07-14). Dobřichovice, Prague: KAVA-PECH, 190 pp. [IpI 14-15].

Corret, Pierre. 1908. Utilité et possibilité de l’adoption d’une langue internationale auxiliaire en médecine. Paris : Presa Esperantista Societo, 142 pp.

Corsetti, Renato & Mauro La Torre. 1995. Quale lingua prima? Per un esperimento CEE che utilizzi l’esperanto. LPLP 19: 26-46.

---------- & Mauro La Torre. 2001. Ĉu klara strukturo estas instrua? In Klaus Schubert, ed. Planned Languages. From Concept to Reality, Part II . Interface. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15: 179-202 [IpI 43, IntI 45].

Couturat, Louis & Léopold Leau. 1903+1907/2001. Histoire de la langue universelle (1903). Les nouvelles langues internationales(1907). Mit einem bibliographischen Nachwort (deutsch-französisch) von Reinhard Haupenthal. Hildesheim,Zürich, New York: Olms. 576+110+8 pp. [reprint].

Darbellay, Christian. 1981. Kiu estas kiu en scienco kaj tekniko. Neuss, Germany: The Author, 275 pp.

Dominte, Constantin & Jozefo Nagy. 2000. Interlingvistiko kaj esperantologio en Rumanio. Bibliografia skizo. IpI 9/2(33): 4-19.

Drezen, Ernest K. 1931/1991. Historio de la Mondolingvo. 4th ed., revised and with commentary by S. Kuznecov. Moscow: Progreso, 452 pp.

Duc Goninaz, Michel, ed. 1987. Studoj pri la Internacia Lingvo. Études sur la langue internationale. Studies on International Language. Ghent: AIMAV, 155 pp.

Duličenko, Aleksandr. 1983. Sovetskaja interlingvistika. Annotirovannaja bibliografija za 1946-1982 gg. Tartu: Tartuskij gosudarstvennyj universitet, 88 pp.

----------. 1990. Meždunarodnye vspomogatel'nye jazyki. Tallin: Valgus, 445 pp.

Eco, Umberto. 1993. La ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea. Rom-Bari: Laterza, 426 pp. [English translation 1995: The Search for the Perfect Language, 385 pp.; German translation 1994: Die Suche nach der vollkommenen Sprache. München: Beck, 388 pp.; Esperanto translation 1996: La serĉado de la perfekta lingvo, 317 pp.; translations also in other languages] [IpI 6-7, IntI 9-11].

Eichholz, Rüdiger & Vilma S. Eichholz, ed. 1982. Esperanto in the Modern World. Studies and Articles on Language Problems, the Right to Communicate, and the International Language. Bailieboro, Ontario: Esperanto Press, 600 pp.

Esperanto-katalogo. 2001. Esperanto-katalogo – Libroservo de UEA. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 190 pp. [accessible also at].

Fantini, Alvino E. & Timothy G. Reagan. 1992. Esperanto and Education: Towards a Research Agenda. Washington: Esperantic Studies Foundation, 136 pp.

Fauvart-Bastoul, Marcelle L. 1902. D’une langue auxiliaire internationale au point de vue du droit des gens. Dijon: Rey, 150 pp.

Fettes, Mark. 1997. Interlinguistics and the Internet. LPLP 21: 170 -176.

---------- & Suzanne Bolduc. 1998. Al lingva demokratio. Towards Linguistic Democracy. Vers la démocratie linguistique. Rotterdam : Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 212 pp. [IntI 27, IpI 25].

Fiedler, Sabine. 1999. Plansprache und Phraseologie: Empirische Untersuchungen zu reproduziertem Sprachmaterial im Esperanto. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 444 pp. [IpI 31, IntI 33].

----------. 2002. Esperanta frazeologio. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 185 pp. [IpI 43, IntI 44].

---------- & Liu Haitao. 2001. Interlingvistikaj Studoj. Interlinguistische Studien. Festschrift für Detlev Blanke zum 60. Geburtstag. Festlibro omaĝe al la 60-jariĝo de Detlev Blanke. Dobřichovice: KAVA-PECH, 736 pp. [English summaries of the 49 contributions in  IntI 39, Esperanto summaries in IpI 39].

Fodor, István. 2000. A világ nyelvei / foszerk XVI. Budapest: Akadémiai K., 1699 pp.

Forster, Peter G. 1982. The Esperanto Movement. Contributions to the Sociology of Languages 32. The Hague, Paris, New York: Mouton, 413 pp.

Frank, Tilo. 1996. Internacia Sciencista Dokumentaro 1996-1999. 3rd ed. San Marino: Akademio Internacia de Sciencoj, 202 pp.

Gecső, Tamás & Zsuzsa Varga-Haszonits, ed. 1998. Memorlibro. Kolekto de prelegoj dum la solena internacia konferenco organizita okaze de la tridekjariĝo de la universitata fako Esperantologio (Budapeŝto, 17/18-04-1997). Budapest: Eötvös Loránd University. 508 pp. [IpI 27, IntI 29].

Gjivoje, Marinko. 1980. Konsultlibro pri Esperantaj bibliotekoj kaj muzeoj. Zagreb: The Author, 55 pp. [introductions in English, German, French, Croatian, Russian, Hungarian].

Gledhill, Christopher. 2000. The Grammar of Esperanto. A Corpus-based Description. 2nd ed.München/ Newcastle: Lincom Europa. [1st ed. 1998] [Inti 31, IpI 32].

Glück, Helmut. 2000. Metzler Lexikon Sprache. 2nd ed. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler, 817 pp.

Golden, Bernard. 1993. De The International Language Review ĝis Eco-logos - la historio de interlingvistika periodaĵo. Periodaĵoj. Bibliografia organo de Rondo Takács (Budapest) 3 (Sept.): 2.

Haarmann, Harald. 2001. Kleines Lexikon der Sprachen. Von Albanisch bis Zulu. München: C.H. Beck, 455 pp. [Esperanto: pp. 115-118].

Hagler, Margret, C. 1970. The Esperanto-Language as a Literary Medium. A Historical Discussion of Esperanto-Literature 1887-1970 and Stylistic Analysis of Translated and Original Esperanto Poetry. Bloomington: Indiana University, 436 pp.

Haupenthal, Esther. 1995. Bibliografio de la verkaro de Reinhard Haupenthal. Saarbrücken: Iltis, 51 pp.

Haupenthal, Irmi & Reinhard Haupenthal, ed. 2000. De A al B. Festlibro por André Albault. Schliengen: Iltis, 281 pp.

Haupenthal, Reinhard. 1968. Enkonduko en la Librosciencon de Esperanto. Bibliografia gvidilo kun komento. Nürnberg: Pickel, 44 pp.

----------. 1982. Volapük-Bibliographie. Hildesheim, Zürich, New York: Olms, 124 pp.

----------, ed. 1976. Plansprachen. Beiträge zur Interlinguistik. Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, 365 pp.

----------, ed. 1985. Li kaj Ni. Festlibro por la 80a naskiĝtago de Gaston Waringhien (1901-29 Julio-1981). Antwerpen: TK; La Laguna: Stafeto, 512 pp.

Heil, Anett. 1999. Grammatische Reduktion in Franko-kreolsprachen und Plansprachen. Rostocker Romanistische Arbeiten, Band 2. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 220 pp. [IpI 32, IntI 34].

Hube, Walter/ Herbert März.. 1975. Alfabeta katalogo pri la kolektoj de Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo en Wien. Parto II (M-Z). Vienna: Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo en Wien / Österreichische National­bibliothek, 378 pp.

Hübler, Axel. 1985. Einander verstehen. Englisch im Kontext internationaler Kommunikation. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 263 pp.

Isaev, Magomet I., ed. 1976. Problemy interlingvistiki. Tipologija i evoljucija meždunarodnych iskusstvennych jazykov. Moscow: Nauka, 157 pp.

----------. 1991. Problemy meždunarodnogo vspomogatel'nogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka, 260 pp. [IntI 3-4].

Jansen, Wim. 2003, forthcoming. Elementen uit de Interlinguiistiek. Amsterdam: University.

Janton, Pierre. 1973. L’Espéranto. Que sais-je? 1511. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 127 pp. [4th ed. 1994].

----------. 1993a. Einführung in die Esperantologie, trans. Günther Becker. 2nd ed. Hildesheim: Olms, 104 pp. [for updated and expanded bibliography see the English edition,  Janton 1993b].

----------. 1993b. Esperanto. Language, Literature, and Community, ed. Humphrey Tonkin, trans. Humphrey Tonkin, Jane Edwards, & Karen Johnson-Weiner. Albany: State University of New York Press, 169 pp.

Jüttner, Irmtraud, ed. 1990. Bibliographie zur Sprachwissen­schaft der DDR für das Jahr 1989 (mit einem Nachtrag für 1988). Sprachwissenschaftliche Informationen 14. Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Zentralinstitut für Sprachwissenschaft,  323 pp.

Kiselman, Christer & Geraldo Mattos, ed. Lingva planado kaj leksikologio. Kontribuaĵoj al internacia simpozio, Zagrebo 2001 07 28-30. Language Planning and Lexicology. Proceedings of an international symposium. Chapecó, Brasilia-DF: Fonto, 286 pp. [IpI 38, IntI 41].

Knöschke, Linde & Ino Kolbe. 1997. Der Esperantist 1(1965)-164(1990). Register Teil I. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e.V., 123 pp.

Kökény, Lajos & Vilmos Bleier, ed. 1933-34/1979. Enciklopedio de Esperanto. 2 vols. Budapest: Literatura Mondo, 600 pp. [2nd ed.1979, 1 vol. Budapest: Hungara Esperanto-Asocio].

Kolbe, Ino. 1996. Zur Geschichte des Deutschen Arbeiter-Esperanto-Bundes in Leipzig (Westsachsen), Teil I und II. Von den Anfängen bis zum Verbot (1933). Eine kommentierte Dokumentation. Ed. with commentary Detlev Blanke. Berlin: Blanke, 135+24 pp. [IpI 21, IntI 23].

----------. 1998. Der Esperantist 1(1965)-164(1990). Register Teil II. Berlin: Arbeitsgruppe Geschichte des Esperanto-Verbandes der DDR, 117 pp.

Košecký, Stanislav, ed. 1987. Problémy interlingvistiky. Zborník materiálov z interlingvistického seminára (Vysoké Tatry 20.-22. mája 1987). Bratislava: Jazykovedný ústav L. Štura SAV; Slovenský esperantský sväz; Český esperantský svaz, 180 pp.

----------, ed. 1990. Problémy interlingvistiky II.  Bratislava: Jazykovedný ústav L. Štura SAV; Slovenský esperantský sväz, 127 pp. [IntI 3-4]

Koutny, Ilona & Márta Kovács, ed. 1997. Struktura kaj socilingvistika esploro de Esperanto. Memore al profesoro István Szerdahelyi. Budapest: Steleto & ILEI, 161 pp. [IpI 21, IntI 27].

Kürschner, Wilfried, ed. 1994. Linguistenhandbuch. Biographische und bibliographische Daten deutschsprachiger Sprachwissen­schaft­­­le­rinnen und Sprachwissenschaftler der Gegenwart. 2 vols. Tübingen: Narr, 1191 pp.

Kuznecov, Sergej N. 1982a. Osnovy interlingvistiki. Moscow: Izd. Univ. Družby narodov, 107 pp.

----------. 1982b. Osnonvye ponjatija i terminy interlingvistiki. Moscow: Izd. Univ. Družby narodov, 80 pp.

----------. 1984. Napravlenija sovremennoj interlingvistiki. Moscow: Izd. Univ. Družby narodov, 99 pp.

----------. 1987. Teoretičeskie osnovy interlingvistiki. Moscow: Izd. Univ. Družby narodov, 207 pp.

Lapenna, Ivo, Ulrich Lins & Tazio Carlevaro. 1974. Esperanto en perspektivo. Faktoj kaj analizoj pri la Internacia Lingvo. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 843 pp.

Large, Andrew. 1985. The Artificial Language Movement. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 239 pp.

Libert, Alan. 2000. A Priori Artificial Languages. München: Lincom Europa, 139 pp. [IpI 43, IntI 45].

----------. 2003. Mixed Artificial Languages. München: Lincom Europa, 106 pp. [IntI 46, IpI 44].

Lins, Ulrich. 1988a. Die gefährliche Sprache. Die Verfolgung der Esperantisten unter Hitler und Stalin. Gerlingen: Bleicher, 326 pp.

----------. 1988b. La danĝera lingvo. Studoj pri la persekutoj kontraŭ Esperanto. Gerlingen: Bleicher, 546 pp. [Reprinted 1990, Moscow: Progreso, with afterwords by Sergej Kuznecov and Detlev Blanke].

----------. 1995. Die Hodler-Bibliothek in Rotterdam. IntI 4/5-6(17-18): 8-11.

----------. 1998.  Das Esperanto-Archiv im Fritz-Hüser-Institut. Mitteilungen des Förderkreises Archive und Bibliotheken zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung  13 (March): 2-4.

----------. 2002.  Trezoroj en la reto. Esperanto 95: 251.(+ IpI 42)

Lipari, Michela, ed. 1999. IKU. Internacia Kongresa Universitato. Berlino 31 julio – 7 aŭgusto 1999. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 83 pp.

----------, ed. 2000. IKU. Internacia Kongresa Universitato. Tel Avivo 26 julio-1 aŭgusto 2000. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 94 pp.

----------, ed. 2001. IKU. Internacia Kongresa Universitato. Zagrebo 21-28 julio 2001. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 96 pp.

Liu, Haitao. 2001. Informadika aspekto de interlingvistiko. In Fiedler/Liu 2001: 147-171.

Lloancy, Marie-Thérèse. 1985. Esperanto et jeu de mots dans l’œuvre de Raymond Schwartz (1894-1973). Paris : Université René Descartes. U.E.R. de Linguistique Générale et Appliquée, 1200 pp.

Lobin, Günter. 2002. Ein Sprachmodell für den Fremdsprachenunterricht. Der propädeutische Wert einer Plansprache in der Fremdsprachenpädagogik. Aachen: Shaker, 237 pp.

Lo Jacomo, François. 1981. Liberté ou autorité dans l'évolution de l'espéranto. Dissertation, University of  Paris (Sorbonne). Pisa: The Author, 384 pp.

Maat, Jaap. 1999. Philosophical Languages in the Seventeenth Century: Dalgarno, Wilkins, Leibniz. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam, Institute for Logic, Language and Computation. 341 pp. [IntI 34, IpI 32].

Maitzen, Hans Michael, Herbert Mayer, Zlatko Tišljar, ed. 1994. Aktoj de  Internacia Scienca Simpozio “Esperanto 100-jara”. Universitato de Vieno, 28.-30.10.1987. Vienna: Pro Esperanto; Maribor: Interkulturo, 250 pp. [IpI 10-11, IntI 15-16].

Malovec, Miroslav, ed. 1999. Modernaj rimedoj de komunikado. Aplikoj de Esperanto en scienco kaj tekniko 1. Dobřichovice, Prague: KAVA-PECH, 193 pp. [IntI 36]

Manders, W.[ilhelmus] J.[ohannes] A.[rnoldus]. 1947. Vijf kunsttalen. Vergelijkend onderzoek naar de waarde van het Volapük, Esperanto, Ido, Occidental en Novial. Purmerend: Muusses, 386 pp.

----------. 1950. Interlingvistiko kaj esperantologio. Purmerend: Muusses, 77 pp. [Partial German translation (pp. 12-19) in Haupenthal 1976, pp. 234-242; reprinted 1980, Saarbrücken: Iltis].

Máthé, Árpád. 1993. Bibliografio de planlingvaj periodaĵoj. Periodaĵoj. Bibliografia organo de Rondo Takács (Budapest) 1 (July): 2.

Mattos, Geraldo, ed. 1987. Centjara Esperanto. Chapéco: Fonto, 240 pp.

Mattusch, Max Hans-Jürgen. 1999. Vielsprachigkeit: Fluch oder Segen für die  Menschheit? Zu Fragen einer europäischen und globalen Fremdsprachenpolitik. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 321 pp. [IpI 28, IntI 30].

McCoy, Roy, ed. 2002. IKU. Internacia Kongresa Universitato. Fortalezo, Brazilo 3-10 aŭgusto 2002. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 123 pp.

Mel’nikov, Alexandr S. 1990. Principy postroenija i funkcional’nogo razvitija planogo meždunardonogo jazyka v sovremennoj interlingvistika. Dissertation, Tartu/Minsk, 196 pp.

Menade. 1998. Menade bal, püki bal.  Festschrift zum 50. Geburtstag von Reinhard Haupenthal. Saarbrücken: Iltis, 487 pp.

Minnaja, Carlo, ed. 2001. Eseoj memore al Ivo Lapenna. Copenhagen: T. Kehlet, 417 pp.

Monnerot-Dumaine, M.[arcel]. 1969. Précis d'interlinguistique générale et spéciale. Paris: Librairie Maloine, 210 pp.

Neergaard, Paul. 1942/1979. La esperantologio kaj ties disciplinoj. Taskoj kaj rezultoj. In Tra densa mallumo, Copenhagen, pp. 37-64 [Reprinted Saarbrücken: Sarlanda Esperanto-Ligo, 1979].

Noltenius, Rainer, ed. 1993. Den Arbeitern aller Länder eine Sprache! Illustrierte Geschichte der Arbeiter-Esperanto-Bewegung. Al la laboristoj en ĉiuj landoj unu lingvon! Ilustrita historio de la Laborista Esperanto-Movado. Informationen 37/93. Katalog zur Ausstellung des Fritz-Hüser-Instituts Dortmund. Dortmund: Fritz-Hüser-Institut für deutsche und ausländische Arbeiter-Literatur, 113 pp. [IntI 6,  IpI 6-7].

Nuessel, Frank. 2000. The Esperanto Language. New York, Ottawa, Toronto: Legas, 153 pp. [IpI 35, IntI 36].

Ockey, Edward. 1982. A Bibliography of Esperanto Dictionaries. Bibliografio de Vortaroj. Banstead, England: The Author, 238 pp.  [2nd ed. Bibliografio de vortaroj kaj terminaroj en Esperanto 1887-2002, revised by Geoffrey Sutton. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 2002].

Papaloïzos, Lilli. 1992. Ethnographie de la communication dans un milieu social exolingue. Le Centre Culturel Espérantiste de La Chaux-de-Fonds (Suisse). Bern: Peter Lang, 254 pp.

Pataki-Czeller, Mária. 1991. Katalogo de la Esperanto-Kolektaĵo de Károly Fajszi Budapest. Libroj. Parto I. Budapest: Országos Idegennyelvü Könyvtár, 542 pp.

Pei, Mario. 1968. One Language for the World. New York: Biblio & Tannen, 291 pp.

Perrenoud, William. 2002. IALA: Conférence de recherches linguistiques / Meeting of Linguistic Research – Procès-verbaux, Genève,20 mars-2 avril 1930. Ed., with introduction and bibliography, Reinhard Haupenthal. Schliengen, Germany: Iltis, 158pp.

Philippe, Benoît. 1991. Sprachwandel bei einer Plansprache am Beispiel des Esperanto. Konstanz: Hartung-Gorre, 362 pp.

Phillipson, Robert. 1992. Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 365 pp. [IpI 21, IntI 23]

----------. 2003. English-Only Europe? London, New York: Routledge, 240 pp. [IntI 46, IpI 45]

Pinter, Ana-Maria, ed. 1999. Kybernetische Pädagogik. Klerigkibernetiko. Einführende, weiterführende und wertende Schriften. Introductory, intermediate and evaluative texts by  Helmar G. Frank. Dobřichovice/Praha: KAVA-PECH; München: KoPäd, 1159 pp. [List of publications by Helmar Frank,  pp. 1133-1141].

Piron, Claude. 1994. Le défi des langues: Du gâchis au bon sens. Paris: Éditions L'Harmattan,  334 pp. [IpI 10-11, IntI 13-14].

Pluhař, Zdeněk. 1999. Iom da historio de AEST.  In Malovec 1999: 9-13.

----------, ed. 2001. Fakaj aplikoj de Esperanto. Aplikoj de Esperanto en scienco kaj tekniko 2. Dobřichovice, Prague: KAVA-PECH, 157 pp. [IpI 39].

----------, ed. 2003. Fakaj studoj en Esperanto. Aplikoj de Esperanto en scienco kaj tekniko 3. Dobřichovice, Prague: KAVA-PECH, 145 pp.

Rašić, Nikola. 1994. La rondo familia. Sociologiaj esploroj en Esperantio. Pisa: Edistudio, 192 pp. [IpI 17].

Régulo Pérez, Juan. 1992. Rikolto. Ed. Reinhard Haupenthal & Gaston Waringhien. Chapecó (SC), Brazil: Fonto, 596 pp. [IpI 4].

Rondo Takács. 1992. Inventaro de planlingvistikaj periodaĵoj. Sant Pau d'Ordal: Hispana Esperanto-Muzeo, 123 pp.

Sakaguchi, Alicja. 1998. Interlinguistik. Gegenstand, Ziele, Aufgaben, Methoden. Frankurt/Main: Peter Lang, 492 pp. [IpI 25, IntI 27].

Schubert, Klaus, ed. 1989a. Interlinguistics: Aspects of the Science of Planned Languages. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs 42. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 348 pp.

----------. 1989b. Interlinguistics – its aims, ist achievements, and its place in language science. In Schubert 1989a: 7-44.

----------. 1996. Zum gegenwärtigen Stand der maschinellen Übersetzung. In Becker 1996: 14 –33

----------. 1999. DLT: Resuma raporto. IpI 8/1 (28): 1-3

----------, ed. 2001. Planned Languages: From Concept to Reality. Interface. Brussels: Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst, 257 pp. [English summaries in IntI 45, Esperanto summaries in IpI 43].

Serta. 1987. Serta gratulatoria in honorem Juan Régulo. II. Esperantismo. La Laguna: Universidad de la Laguna, 790 pp. [IpI 4].

Silagi, Denis. 1996. Der Name "Interlingua". IntI 5/2 (20): 6-10.

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. 2000. Linguistic Genocide in Education – or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights? Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum, 785 pp. [IpI 35, IntI 35].

Smith, Karin & Susan Haake. 1978. Catalog of the George Alan Connor Esperanto Collection. Oregon: University of Oregon Library, Special Collections Division, 120 pp.

Steiner, Hugo. 1957. Katalogo pri la kolektoj de Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo en Wien. Parto I. Sistema katalogo pri la Esperanto-presaĵoj laŭ la Internacia Dekuma Klasifiko. Vienna: Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, unpaginated.

----------. 1958. Katalogo pri la kolektoj de Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo en Wien. Parto II. Sistema katalogo pri la  presaĵoj de la ne-Esperanto-artefaritaj lingvoj (Volapük, Ido, Interlingue, Interlingua ktp.) laŭ la Internacia Dekuma Klasifiko. Vienna: Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, 93 pp.

----------. 1969. Alfabeta katalogo pri la kolektoj de Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo en Wien.Parto I (Literoj A-L de la verkoj troveblaj en la biblioteko, escepte la gazetojn). Vienna: Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo en Wien, 462 pp.

Stenström, Ingvar. 1997. Occidental-Interlingue. Factos e fato de un lingua international. Varberg: Societate Svedese pro Interlingua, 40 pp. [bibliography of the publications in Occidental-Interlingue: 28 –34; reprinted in IpI 45].

Stillman, Robert E. 1995. The New Philosophy and Universal Languages in Seventeenth-Century England: Bacon, Hobbes, and Wilkins. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 359 pp. [IpI 28, IntI 30].

Stocker, Frank. 1996. Wer spricht Esperanto? Kiu parolas Esperanton? München, Newcastle: Lincom Europa, 150 pp.

Stojan, Petr E. 1929/1973. Bibliografio de Internacia Lingvo. Geneva: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 560 pp. [Introductions in French, German, English; Reprinted Hildesheim: Olms, 1973].

Strasser, Gerhard F. 1988. Lingua Universalis. Kryptologie und Theorie der Universalsprachen im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz , 291 pp.

Symoens, Edward. 1989.  Bibliografio de universitataj kaj altlernejaj diplomverkoj, disertacioj kaj tezoj pri Esperanto kaj interlingvistiko. Bibliographie: Thèses et dissertations universitaires ou d' instituts superieurs sur  l'espéranto et l'interlinguistique. Dissertations and Theses on Esperanto and Interlinguistics: A Bibliography. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 160 pp.

----------. 1995. Bibliografio de disertacioj pri Esperanto kaj interlingvistiko. Suplemento. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 63 pp.

Szerdahelyi, István. 1977. Bábeltől a világnyelvig. Budapest: Gondolat, 415 pp.

----------, ed. 1980. Miscellanea interlinguistica. Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó, 513 pp.

Takács, Jozefo. 1934. Katalogo de la Esperanto-gazetaro. Jablonné n. Orl.: Ant. Pražák,  166 pp.

Tauli, Valter. 1968. Introduction to a Theory of Language Planning. Uppsala: Almquist & Wiksells, 227 pp.

Tonkin, Humphrey. 1977. Esperanto and International Language Problems: A Research Bibliography. Washington: Esperantic Studies Foundation, 45 pp.

----------, ed. Esperanto, Interlinguistics, and Planned Language. Lanham, New York, Oxford: University Press of America; Rotterdam, Hartford: Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems, 232 pp. [IntI 27].

---------- & Mark Fettes. 1996. Esperanto Studies: An Overview. Esperanto Document 43°. Rotterdam: Universala  Esperanto-Asocio, 16 pp.

UEA. 2002. Jarlibro 2002. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 280 pp.

Umeda, Yosimi, ed. 1987. Plena Raporto. Socilingvistikaj Aspektoj de la Internacia Lingvo – kun aparta konsidero pri la lingva diverseco en la mondo. (Internacia Simpozio honore al la Centjara Jubileo de Esperanto, 5.-7.8.1986, Tokio). Tokio: Japana Esperanto-Instituto, 205 pp. [In Japanese and Esperanto].

Vatré, Henri. 1988. Indekso por la Nica Literatura Revuo (1955/56-1961/62). Saarbrücken: Iltis, 16 pp.

Vitali, Daniele, ed. 1998. La linguistica, le lingue pianificate e l’Esperanto. Centodieci anni di storia. Special issue of L’esperanto (Rome) 29/3, 80 pp. [IpI 25, IntI 27].

Wandel, Amri, ed. 1998. Internacia Kongresa Universitato, 1-7 aŭgusto 1998, Montpeliero, Francio. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 88pp.

Waringhien, Gaston. 1989. Lingvo kaj vivo. Esperantologiaj eseoj. 2nd revised edition with appendix. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 452 pp. [1st edition 1959].

Wells, John C. 1978. Lingvistikaj aspektoj de Esperanto. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 76 pp. [German translation: Linguistische Aspekte der Plansprache Esperanto, trans.  Günther Becker. Saarbrücken: Saarländischer Esperanto-Bund, 101 pp.].

Wojtakowski, Edward T. 1979. Decimala katalogo de la planlingva literaturo ĉe universitata biblioteko de la Katolika Universitato en Lublino (K.U.L.). Katalog dziesiętny księgozbioru esperanckiego w bibliotece uniwersyteckiej K.U.L. Rome, Lublin: IKUE-Centro, 303 pp.

Wood, Richard E. 1982. Current Work in the Linguistics of Esperanto. Esperanto Documents 28 A. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 47 pp.

Wüster, Eugen. 1931. Internationale Sprachnormung in der Technik. Besonders in der Elektrotechnik. (Die nationale Sprachnormung und ihre Verallgemeinerung). Berlin: VDJ, 507 pp. [3rd edition, Bonn: Bouvier, 1970. One third of the work is concerned with planned languages].




Interlinguistik und Esperantologie - Wege zur Fachliteratur

Nicht wenige Veröffentlichungen zur Interlinguistik und Esperantologie könnten  eine höhere Qualität aufweisen, wenn ihre Autoren eine tiefere Kenntnis der relevanten Fachliteratur besäßen. Jedoch ist selbst für den Fachmann eine Orientierung sowohl über aktuelle als auch über ältere wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zu verschiedenen Aspekten von Plansprachen (["künstlichen"] Welt[hilfs]sprachen) oft schwierig. Die Studie will Literaturrecherche dadurch erleichtern, indem sie auf die vielfältigen Materialquellen hinweist, die ausgewertet werden sollten. Das sind neben Monographien vor allem weniger bekannten Anthologien, Festschriften, Konferenzakten, Hochschulschriften sowie neuere und ältere plansprachige Periodika. Für die aktuelle Information von besonderer Bedeutung sind neben allgemeinen und speziellen interlinguistischen Bibliographien und bibliographisch orientierten Bulletins vor allem periodisch erscheinende internationale linguistische Bibliographien mit interlinguistischen Sektionen. Am ergiebigsten ist die von der Modern Language Association (New York) herausgegebene Bibliographie über moderne Sprachen und Literaturen, in der jährlich die neuesten Materialien registriert werden. Spezialbibliotheken, zunehmend elektronisch erschlossen,  halten große Materialmengen zur Auswertung bereit. Bei der Erschließung interlinguistisch-esperantologischer Fachliteratur spielt das Internet eine zunehmende Rolle.


Interlingvistiko kaj esperantologio - vojoj al la faka literaturo

Ne malmultaj publikaĵoj pri interlingvistiko kaj esperantologio povus esti pli altkvalitaj, se iliaj aŭtoroj havintus pli profundan konon de grava fakliteraturo. Tamen, eĉ por fakulo ofte malfacilas orientiĝi kaj pri la aktualaj kaj pri pli malnovaj sciencaj studoj traktantaj diversajn aspektojn de planlingvoj (["artefaritaj"] mondaj [help]lingvoj). La studaĵo volas plifaciligi la aliron al fakliteraturo per atentigo pri la multspecaj materialfontoj, kiujn indas eluzi. Krom monografioj tio aparte koncernas malpli konatajn antologiojn, festlibrojn, konferencaktojn, universitatajn disertaciojn, krome iom novajn kaj malpli novajn planlingvajn periodaĵojn. Por la aktuala informiĝo aparte gravas ĝeneralaj kaj specialaj interlingvistikaj bibliografioj, bibliografie orientitaj bultenoj kaj periode aperantaj internaciaj bibliografioj kun interlingvistikaj sekcioj. Plej rezultodona estas la bibliografio pri modernaj lingvoj kaj literaturoj, eldonata de Modern Language Association (MLA) en Novjorko, kiu ĉiujare registras la plej novajn materialojn. Specialaj bibliotekoj, pli kaj pli elektronike konsulteblaj, disponigas grandajn esploreblajn materialkvantojn. Por la alirebligo de la faka literaturo la Interreto ludas kreskantan rolon.


Author’s address


Otto-Nagel-Strasse 110

D-12683 Berlin




About the author


Detlev Blanke holds a Ph.D. from Humboldt University and is University Lecturer in Interlinguistics at Humboldt; he is president of the German Society for Interlinguistics (Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e.V.), is a member of the editorial board of LPLP and Esperanto Studies, and has published extensively on interlinguistics.





nach oben

[1] This article is a much expanded and updated version of the German-language study “Wege zur interlinguistischen und esperantologischen Fachliteratur“, which first appeared in LPLP 20 (1996): 168-181, and later in IntI 10/1(38) (2001).

See in other languages:


Esperanto: Interlingvistiko kaj esperantologio: vojoj al la faka literaturo. (Esperanto-Dokumentoj 39E). Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 2003, 40 p.


German: Interlinguistik und Esperantologie: Wege zur Fachliteratur. (Esperanto-Dokumente 7). Bamberg: Deutsches Esperanto-Institut 2003, 58 p. (see ****)


Czech: Interlingvistika. Cesty k odborné literatuře. (With a complementary chapter by Miroslav Malowec on interlinguistics in the Czech Republic).Dobřichovice: KAVA-PECH, 2003, 69 p.


A translation into Chinese is prepared by LIU Haitao (with a complementary chapter on interlinguistiscs in the China).


For helpful corrections and suggestions I thank Věra Barandovská-Frank, Wera Blanke, Osmo Buller, Renato Corsetti, Sabine Fiedler, Martin Haase, Wim Jansen, Kim Uson, Ino Kolbe, Ilona Koutny,  Andreas Künzli, Sergej Kuznecov, Jouko Lindstedt, Ulrich Lins, Liu Haitao, Cornelia Mannewitz, Geraldo Mattos, Aleksandr Melnikov, Carlo Minnaja, Ursula Niesert, Marc van Oostendorp, Otto Prytz, Árpád Rátkai, Humphrey Tonkin, Usui Hiroyuki, Balázs Wacha, and Yamasaki Seikô.


[2] On the currently differing limitations of the definition of interlinguistics see the surveys by Schubert (1989b), Blanke (1998c) and Sakaguchi (1998). The term is normally either (a) limited to the study of planned languages, systems of international communication, or interlanguages, or (b) includes other, e.g. politicolinguistic, aspects.


[3]  In using the term “interlanguages” to describe systems of international communication, we should note that in literature on the acquisition of foreign languages the term “interlingua” refers, in general, to a language formed in the mind of the learner.


[4] Although in my opinion politicolinguistic aspects are important elements in modern interlinguistics, in this study I have given primary attention, for methodological reasons, to the literature on the theory of planned languages and on Esperantology.


[5] On the term, created by Eugen Wüster (1931), see Blanke (1997).  The term is customarily used in the interlinguistic literature but does not refer to ethnic languages influenced by language planning (Norwegian Landsmål/Nynorsk, Modern Hebrew/Ivrit, Bahasa Indonesia, “Unified Basque” [Euskara Batua] etc.)


[6] Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, HSK/ Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, published by de Gruyter (Berlin-New York). To date the following chapters on interlinguistics have appeared:

·         In Vol. 3 (Soziolinguistik/ Sociolinguistics), Part 1(1987): Alicja Sakaguchi, Welthilfssprachen, p. 365-370; Part 2 (1988): Pierre Janton, Plans for an International Language, p. 1679-1687;

·         In Vol. 5 (Wörterbücher/Dictionaries), Part 3 (1991): Reinhard Haupenthal, Lexikographie der Plansprachen, p. 3120-3137);

·         In Vol. 7 (Sprachphilosophie/ Philosophy of Language),  Part 2 (1996): Vivian Salmon, The Universal Language Problem, p. 916-928;

·         In Vol. 12 (Kontaktlinguistik/Contact Linguistics), Part 1(1996): Otto Back, Plansprachen, p. 881-887;

·         In Vol. 14 (Fachsprachen/Languages for Special Purposes), Part 1 (1998): Detlev Blanke/Wera Blanke, Plansprachen als Fachsprachen, p. 875-880;

·         In Vol. 18 (Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften/History of the Language Sciences), Part 1 (2000): Jaap Maat/David Cram, Universal Language Schemes in the 17th Century, p. 1030-1043;

·         In Vol. 20 (Sprachtypologie und sprachliche Universalien/ Language Typology and Language Universals), Part 1 (2001): Heiner Böhmer, Künstliche Sprachen und Universalsprachen, p. 85-94. 

In preparation are contributions at least to Vol. 17 (Morphologie/Morphology), Part 2 (Blanke), Vol.  21 (Lexikologie/Lexicology), Part 2 (Blanke), and Vol. 13 (Semiotik/Semiotics), Part 3 (Peter Mühlhäusler).


[7]  Tauli (1968) clearly indicated the connections between language planning and planned languages.  It is certainly no accident that the journal Language Problems and Language Planning (its predecessor had the Esperanto title La Monda Lingvo-Problemo 1969-1977), an internationally recognized scholarly journal, was founded and is currently edited by interlinguists.


[8] In the case of Esperanto, for example, it would be worth exploring what kinds of language change have taken place between the stage of „publication and projection” (1887) and (particularly since the Second World War) “Esperanto as family language“.


[9] See the bibliography in Blanke (1998a) on Esperanto as a language of scholarship and on the heuristic role of Esperanto in the work of Eugen Wüster, founder of the science of terminology (Blanke 1998b).


[10] See the surveys of Schubert (1996;1999) and Liu (2001).


[11] On the propedeutic effect of the teaching of a planned language in the learning of other foreign languages, see Lobin (2002) and the overviews in Corsetti & La Torre (1995, 2001) on the various experiments along these lines; see also Fantini/Reagan (1992).


[12] See, for example, Fettes/Bolduc (1998), Hübler (1985), Mattusch (1999), Phillipson (1992, 2003), Piron (1994), and Skutnabb-Kangas (2000), who include interlinguistic viewpoints in their analyses. 


[13] I have tried to show this difference (Blanke 2001). See also the other contributions in Schubert (2001).


[14] Neergaard (1942/79) compiled the first bibliography of Esperanto studies.  Important basic works in Esperanto studies include Gledhill (2000), Janton (1993a,b), Manders (1950), Nuessel (2000) and Wells (1987). Janton and Wells have been translated into several languages. In addition, there exist many studies that deal with particular aspects of the language, for example Fiedler (1999, 2002), who established research in phraseology as a sub-discipline of Esperanto studies. 


[15] The Esperanto language community has been studied by, among others, Forster (1982), Lins (1988a,1988b), Stocker (1996) and Rašić (1994). On the history of the workers’ Esperanto movement, see, for example, Borsboom (1976), Kolbe (1996) and Noltenius (1993). A bibliography on the historiography of the Esperanto language community is contained in Blanke (2000).


[16] Although interlinguistics includes Esperanto studies, I sometimes treat Esperanto studies separately.  Although all Esperanto studies are interlinguistic studies, the reverse is not always so.  And consequently not all interlinguists are scholars of Esperanto.           


[17] See the comparation in 5.3


[18] For example in Bussmann (2002). See the articles on Ido, Interlingua, Welthilfssprache. A separate article on Esperanto, which is mentioned in the other articles, is missing.  In Glück (2000) interlinguistics is better represented.  Haarmann (2001), although his sources are old, can also be cited as a positive example.


[19] Among the more important surveys of interlinguistics are those of  Albani/Buonarroti (1994), Barandovská-Frank (1995), Bausani (1970), Blanke (1985),  Couturat/Leau (1903/2001), Drezen (1931/91), Duličenko (1990), Eco (1993),  Knowlson (1975), Kuznecov (1987), Large (1985), Libert (2000; 2003), Maat (1999), Monnerot-Dumaine (1969), Pei (1968,) Sakaguchi (1998), Stillman (1995), Strasser (1988) and Szerdahelyi (1977).


[20] Among the more important anthologies and Festschriften are those of Benczik (1999), Blanke (1986), Duc Goninaz (1987), Fiedler/Liu (2001), Haupenthal (1976; 1985;  Menade 1998),  I. Haupenthal/ R. Haupenthal 2000), Isaev (1976; 1991), Mattos (1987), Minnaja (2002), Régulo Pérez (1987 = Serta Gratulatoria), Schubert (1989a, 2001), Szerdahelyi (1980) and Vitali (1998).


[21] Between 1973 and 1997 The Japanese editor Itô Kanzi, under the pseudonym Ludovikito, published in 50 volumes all the publications of Zamenhof and materials that came into being under the influence of Zamenhof (see Esperanto-katalogo...2001: 71-72).


[22] Ada Csiszár has, as of the end of 2002, published eight volumes on the works of Kálmán Kalocsay, containing critiques, reviews, specimen works, etc.


[23] Worthy of particular mention here is the Encyclopedia of Esperanto, which covers the period from the beginnings of Esperanto (1887) to the beginning of the 1930s (Kökény/Bleier 1933-34/79). A newer encyclopedic work appeared in 1974 (Lapenna/Lins/Carlevaro). Also useful is the bilingual collection (Esperanto/English) of various studies, compiled by Eichholz/Eichholz (1982).


[24] Between 1982 and 1990 Aleksandr D. Duličenko published 7 volumes in the series Interlinguistica Tartuensis (for more precise information see IntI 40, IpI 42).


[25] Between 1981 and 1986 Tadeusz Ejsmont published in Łódź, Poland, six volumes in the series Międzynarodowa komunikacja językowa (see IntI 45; IpI 43).


[26] Unfortunately of the fourteen colloquia the proceedings of only three have been published.  The Acta Interlinguistica of the 11th (1983), 12th (1984) and 13th (1985) interlinguistics symposia were edited by Ryszard Rokicki.


[27] They were edited by, among others, Humphrey Tonkin. These and other materials were published in part in the series Papers of the Center for Research and Documentation on World Language Problems, also edited by Humphrey Tonkin. By 2002 5 volumes had appeared (see Tonkin 1997, and see the other titles in IpI 8-9, IntI 9-11).


[28] By the end of 2002, eight volumes had appeared with the following general topics (in German): translation/interpretation and planned languages (published 1996), terminological aspects of interlinguistics (1997), One Language for Science, a memorial colloquium on Wilhelm Ostwald (1998), sociocultural aspects of planned languages (1998), interlinguistics and lexicography (1999), language policy in Europe (2001), the structure of planned languages (2001), planned languages and their communities (2002). See also IpI 38, IntI 40 and the review by Renato Corsetti in Esperantologio – Esperanto Studies, 3/2003.


[29] See the survey of the history of the series in Pluhař 1996 (1999). In 1996 the series reappeared under the name KAEST (Kolokvo/Konferenco pri  Apliko de Esperanto en Scienco kaj Teĥniko, Conference on the Application of Esperanto in Science and Technology). Three volumes of conference proceedings have appeared (Malovec 1999, Pluhař 2001, Pluhař 2003).


[30] Volumes appeared for 1983 (201 p.), 1984 (135 p.), 1985 (318 p.), 1986 (298 p.), 1987 (203 p.) and 1988-90 (560 p.).


[31] See Wandel (1998), Lipari (1999), Lipari (2000), Lipari (2001),  McCoy (2002).


[32] IntI kaj IpI (see 5.6) provide information on recent dissertations, if the editor is aware of them.


[33] There is a growing number of doctoral dissertations.  Among those in printed and published form are those of Bak (1991), Blanke (1981), Corret (1908), Fauvart-Bastoul (1902), Forster (1982), Hagler (1970), Heil (1999), Lloancy (1985), Lobin (2002), Lo Jacomo (1981), Maat (1999), Melnikov (1990) Papaloïzos (1992), Philippe (1991) and the already classic dissertations of Wüster (1931) and Manders (1947).


[34] Probably only those of Blanke (1985, Humboldt University), Sakaguchi (1998, Poznań University) and Fiedler (1999, Leipzig University), all in German. The writing of a habilitation dissertation, particularly in central Europe, is required following the first doctorate (after the English PhD), to receive the right to teach at the highest level in universities (Facultas docendi or Venia legendi), a condition for nomination to the position of lecturer and subsequently that of university professor.


[35] The eight textbooks (in Hungarian and Esperanto) deal with the history of planned languages, theoretical problems of interlinguistics, the Esperanto language (grammar, literature), and the methodology of foreign-language instruction.  Between 1976 and 1977 there also appeared three volumes of Esperantologiaj kajeroj.


[36] Also worthy of mention is a Dutch-language textbook now being prepared by Wim Jansen (forthcoming, 2003).


[37] See also Silagi (1996), who published (1929-1930) in Budapest periodical with the latin title Communicationes (Libelli pro historia et scientia interlinguarum).


[38] The successors of  International Language Review, but with much less interlinguistic content, were International Language Reporter (1969-1979) and Eco-logos (1971-1979), published by John W. Ragsdale, in Denver (see Golden 1993).


[39] Organ oficial del Union International de Interlinguistik Service, Amsterdam, published by W.J. Visser. The title of the newsletter is in Eurolatin. In Union contributions in various planned languages appeared – a total of 22 newsletters with 274 pages. 


[40] On the contents see IntI 45.


[41] As of the mid-1990s.


[42] On the contents of the first two issues see IntI 33, IpI 32+37.


[43] On the contents see IpI 12-13.


[44] See the list of titles in IpI 17.


[45] See the list of titles in Esperanto aktuell 5/2002:. 2.


[46] See the list of publications in IpI 31, IntI 33.


[47] See Máthé (1993) and the preview publication Rondo Takács (1992). In Budapest (1993-1994) a total of eighteen issues of the bibliographic bulletin Periodaĵoj appeared.


[48] Rund um die Welt. Zeitschrift für Volapükisten und solche, die es werden wollen. vol. 1-4 (April 1888 – March 1892), reprint prepared by Reinhard Haupenthal (Hildesheim-Zürich-New York: Georg Olms, 2000).


[49] Geoffrey Sutton has computerized and updated Ockey’s bibliography to 2002 (the bibliography includes specialized dictionaries: ).  A list of specialized dictionaries has also been compiled by Jérôme Vachey for the years 1980-2002.  It is available on the Internet:>,


[50] Titles of interest for interlinguistics are scattered among the lists of Frank’s publications.


[51] See the first list of Haupenthal’s publications (Esther Haupenthal 1995).


[52] Linguistic bibliography for the year... and supplements for previous years. Published by the Permanent International Committee of Linguists under the auspices of the International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies. Edited by Mark Janse and Sijmen Tol, with the assistance of Inge Angevaare and Theo Horstman.


[53]  Bibliography of General Linguistics and of English, German, and Romance Linguistics. Compiled by Elke Suchan, Heike Westermann and Marc-Oliver Vorköper.


[54] Collaborators in the interlinguistic sections have included W.A.Verloren van Themaat (1979-89), Humphrey Tonkin (1980-  , now Senior Bibliographer), Jane Edwards (1984-98), and Detlev Blanke (1992-  ).


[55] Because of publication delays the most recent volume (2002) relates to 1998.


[56] See Jüttner (1990). The author of the present study also collaborated.


[57] From 1974 to 1977 edited by Ulrich Lins, Köln (first series: 1-4), from 1983 to 1990 by Ryszard Rokicki, Warsaw (second series: 1-20) and as of 1992 by Detlev Blanke, Berlin (third series:1-43[4/2002], to be continued).


[58] On Liu see the intereview in the journal Esperanto (Rotterdam) 12/2002 and IpI 42.


[59] Internationale Bibliographie der Zeitschriftenliteratur, begründet von Felix Dietrich (Osnabrück 1897- ). As of 1965 the bibliography is published in three sections: A. Bibliographie der deutschen Zeitschriftenliteratur, B. Bibliographie der fremdsprachigen Zeitschriftenliteratur / Répertoire bibliographique international des revues / International Index to Periodicals, C: Bibliographie der Rezensionen und Referate.


[60] DFG = Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft/ German Research Association, special collection in linguistics. 


[61] The edition of CCL 30(2002), No. 1-2 lists 260 titles.


[62]  See also the selected bibliography in Der Esperantist 26 (1990), No. 5(163), pp. 97-109


[63] Only GDR publications (Berlin) 1966-1989; see the selected bibliography in Der Esperantist  26(1990), No. 4 (162), pp. 90-93.


[64] La Esperantisto. Gazeto por la amikoj de la lingvo Esperanto. 1889-1895. Afterword by Reinhard Haupenthal. Hildesheim-Zürich-New York: Olms, 1988.


[65] See Libroservo de UEA, 2001. Esperanto-Katalogo. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 190pp. Also at


[66] See Bibliographia de Interlingua. Catalogo de publicationes in e pro Interlingua. Beekbergen: Servicio de libros U.M.I., edition januario 2000, (numero 27), 28 pp.


[67] A search of the large German network of used bookstores at yielded 300 titles (April 20, 2003).


[68]  In a lecture in the 15th Conference on Esperanto Studies, 1992, during the 77nd World Congress of Esperanto. 


[69]  Current addresses can be found in UEA 2000..


[70]  See the unfortunately badly outdated catalogues of  Steiner 1957, 1958, 1969, Hube/März 1975. New acquisitions in the period 1950-1984 were announced in the newsletter Informilo de IEMW, replaced in 1985-1989 with Bibliografio de Esperanto (kaj aliaj planlingvoj). In more recent times, cataloguing has taken place by means of the electronic data bank TROVANTO, accessible through the Internet.  On November 29, 2002, the data bank contained 29,000 entries (see section 7).


[71]  See Claude Gacond (2003): “Le Centre de documentation et d’étude sur la langue internationale de la Bibliothèque de la Ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1954-2003: bientôt un demi-siècle d’activité. Rapport historique.” Manuscript, 50 pp. forthcoming (available at


[72]  See Lins 1995.


[73]  In 2002 the Aalen collection contained c. 40,000 titles, including bound volumes of periodicals (Esperanto aktuell 21[2002]4, p.13).


[74]  Access to the collection is available by way of


[75]  For example, the complete archive and library of the Esperanto Association in the GDR Cultural League (Esperanto-Asocio en Kulturligo de GDR, GDREA, 1965-1991) forms part of the archive of the Cultural League and can be found in Berlin at SAPMO, the Stiftung Archive der Parteien und Massenorganisationen der DDR beim Bundesarchiv (Foundation for the Archives of Parties and Mass Organizations of GDR in the Federal Archive).


[76] On the potential and problems of Internet use for interlinguistics, see recent articles by Becker (1997; 2001) and Fettes (1997).


[77]  The CD espeRom, published by the German Esperanto Association (Freiburg 1996), for example, contains scholarly studies on planned languages, language courses and extensive grammars, dictionaries, specialized bibliographies and catalogues of libraries, book catalogues, etc.  It also addresses the practical application of Esperanto (e.g. organizations, congresses and other activities, journals) and includes a guide to the steadily increasing services of the Internet.  The CD also contains the complete Esperanto translation of the Bible (see IntI 23, IpI 23).


[78]  I am indebted to Marc van Oostendorp for this reference.


[79]  See Ulrich Becker’s essay on interlinguistics in the Internet, also published in IntI 44.


nach oben